Capítulo 5.1. Transtornos metabólicos del equilibrio acido-base


1.  Hanna JD, Scheinman JI, Chan JCM. The kidney in acid-base balance. Pediatr Clin North Am 1995; 42: 1365-1395. 
2.  Rose BD. Acid - base physiology. En: Rose BD, eds. Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disordres. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989; 261-285. 
3.  Halperin ML, Jungas RL. Metabolic production and renal disposal of hidrogen ions: An examination of the biochemical processes. Kidney Int, 1983; 24: 709-713 
4.  Seifter J, Aronson P. Properties and physiologic roles of the plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger. J Clin Invest 1986; 78: 859-864 
5.  Stone DK, Xie X.S. Proton translocating ATPases: Issues in structure and function. Kidney Int 1988; 33: 767-774 
6.  Rose BD. Regulation of acid-base balance. En: Rose BD, eds. Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disordres. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989: 286-322. 
7.  Vinay P, Lemieux G, Gougoux A, Halperin M. Regulation of glutamine metabolism in dog kidney in vivo. Kidney Int 1986; 29: 68-79 
8.  Schoolwerth AC. Regulation of renal ammoniagenesis in metabolic aciosis. Kidney Int 1991; 40: 961-973 
9.  Halperin ML, Goldstein MB. Acid, electrolyte, and acid-base emergencies. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1988: 2-119. 
10.  Emmett M, Narins R. Clinical use of anion gap. Medicine 1977; 56: 38-54 
11.  Kruse JA. Clinical utility and limitations of the anion gap. Int J Intens Care 1997; 4: 51-66. 
12.  Wallia R, Greenberg A, Piraino B, Mitro R, Puschett JB. Serum electrolyte patterns in end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1986; 8: 98-104 
13.  Widmer B, Gerhardt R, Harrington J,Cohen JJ. Serum elctrolyte and acid-base composition: The influence of graded degrees of chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med 1979; 139: 1099-1102 
14.  Stacpoole PW, Wright EC, Baumgartner TG, Bersin RM, Buchalter S, Curry SH, et al. Natural History and course of acquired lactic acidosis in adults. Am J Med 1994; 97: 47-54. 
15.  Mizock BA, Falk JL. Lactic acidosis in critical illness. Crit Care Med 1992; 20: 80-93. 
16.  Malhotra D, Shapiro JI. Pathogenesis and management of lactic acidosis. Curr Opin Crit Care 1996; 2: 439-448. 
17.  Halperin ML, Kamel KS. Biochemical aspect of D-lactic acidosis. Kidney Int 1996; 49: 1-8. 
18.  Adrogue HJ, Wilson H, Boyd AE 3d, Suki WN, Eknoyan G. Plasma acid-base patterns in diabetic ketoacidosis. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 1603-1610. 
19.  Levy LJ, Duga J, Girgirs M, Gordon EE. Ketoacidosis associated with alcoholism in nondiabetic subjects. Ann Intern Med 1973; 78: 213-219. 
20.  Fabris AG, Fabris G. Rhabdomyolisis and acute renal failure. En: Bellomo R, Ronco C, eds. Acute renal failure in the critically ill. Update Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995; 20: 165-177. 
21.  Gabow PA, Anderson RJ, Potts DE,Schrier RW. Acid base disturbances in the salicylate intoxicated adult. Arch Intern Med 1978; 138: 1481-1484. 
22.  Thisted B, Krantz T, Shrom J, Sorensen MB. Acute salicylate poisoning in 177 consecutive patients treated in ICU. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1987; 31:312-316. 
23.  Gabow P. Ethylene glycol intoxication. Am J Kidney Dis 1988; 11:277-279. 
24.  Schelling JR, Howard R, Winter SD, Linas SL. Increased osmolal gap in alcoholic ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 580-582. 
25.  Perez GO, Oster JR, Rogers A. Acid-base disturbances in gastrointestinal disease. Dig Dis Sci 1987; 32:1033-1043. 
26.  Batlle D, Hizon M, Cohen E, Gutterman C, Gupta R. The use of the urinary anion gap in the diagnosis of hiperchloremic metabolic acidosis. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 594 -599. 
27.  Smulders YM, Frissen PHJ, Slaats EH, Silberbusch J. Renal tubular acidosis. Pathophysiology and diagnosis. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156:1629-1636. 
28.  Rothstein M, Obialo Ch, Hruska KA. Renal tubular acidosis. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 1990; 19: 869-887. 
29.  Batlle D, Flores G. Underlying defects in distal renal tubular acidosis: new understandings. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 27:896-915. 
30.  Bushinsky D, Coe F, Katzenberg C, Szidon JP, Parks JM. Arterial PCO2 in chronic metabolic acidosis. Kidney Int 1982; 22:311-314. 
31.  Williamson JC. Acid-base disorders: classification and management strategies. Am Fam Physician 1995; 52: 584-590. 
32.  Arieff AI. Indications for use of bicarbonate in patients wiyh metabolic acidosis. Br J Anaesth 1991; 67: 165-177. 
33.  Leung JM, Landow L, Franks M, Soja-Strzepa D, Heard SO, Arieff AI, et al. Safety and efficacy of intravenous Carbicarb in patients undergoing surgery: comparison with sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of mild metabolic acidosis. Crit Care Med 1994; 22: 1541-1549. 
34.  Sabatini S. The cellular basis of metabolic alkalosis. Kidney Int 1996; 49: 906-917. 
35.  Hulter HN. Pathogenesis and management of metabolic alkalosis. Curr Opin Crit Care 1996; 2:424-431. 
36.  Rose BD. Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. New York, McGraw-Hill 1989; 478-500. 
37.  Hernandez R, Schambelan M, Cogan M, Colman J, Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A. Dietary NaCl determines the severity of potassium depletion-induced metabolic alkalosis. Kidney Int 1987; 31: 1356-1367. 
38.  Cappuccio FP, Markandu ND, Buckley MG, Sagnella GA, Shore AC, MacGregor GA. Changes in the plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptides during mineralocorticoid escape in man. Clin Sci 1987; 72: 531-539. 
39.  Neil WA, Pantley GA, Nakornchai V. Respiratory alkalemia during exercise reduces angina threshold. Chest 1981; 80:149-153. 
40.  Yasue H, Nagao M, Omote S, Takazawa A, Miwa K, Tanaka S. Coronary arterial spasm and prinzmetal´s variant form of angina induced by hyperventilation and Tris-buffer infusion. Circulation 1978; 58: 56-62. 
41.  Anderson LE, Henrich WL. Alkalemia-associated morbidity and mortality in medical and surgical patients. South Med J 1987; 80:729-733. 
42.  Bushinsky DA, Gennari FJ. Life-threatening hiperkalemia induced by arginine. Ann Intern Med 1978; 89: 632-634.