Capítulo 3. 4. Pancreatitis Aguda


1.Amman RW, Heitz PU, Kloppel G : Course of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis: a prospective clinico-morphological long term study. 
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2.Balthazar EJ .CT diagnosis and staging of acute pancreatitis. Radiol Clin North Am 1989;27:19-25

3.Banerjee AK, Galloway SW, Kingsnorth AN : Experimental models of acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1994,81(8):1096-103

4.Beaux de C, Goldie AS, Ross JA, Carter DC, Fearon CH : Serum concentrations of inflammatory mediators related to organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1996;83:349-353

5.Beger HG, Buchler M,BittnerR, Block S, Nevalainen T, Roscher R
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6.Beger HG, Bittner R, Block S,Buchler M: Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis. A prospective clinical study. Gastroenterology 1986, 91:433-438. 

7.Bradley El . III. A clinically based classification system for the acute pancreatitis. Arch Surg 1993 ;128:586-90

8.Bradley El . A fifteen year experience with open drainage for infected pancreatic necrosis Surg Gynecol Obstet 1993;177(3):215-222

9.Bradley EL, Allen KA A prospective longitudinal study of observation versus surgical intervention in the management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1991;161:19-25

10.Bradley EL, Murphy F, Ferguson C. Prediction of pancreatic necrosis by dynamic pancreatography. Ann Surg 1989;504:495-504

11.Buchler MW, Binder M, Fries H: Role of somatostatin and its analogues in the treatment of acute and chronic pancreatitis Gut 1994;35(3 Suppl): S 15-9

12.Buchler M,Malfertheiner P, Fries H.: Human pancreatic tissue concentration of bactericidal antibiotics. Gastroenterology 1992;103:1902-8

13.Buchler M, Malfertheiner P, Uhl W et al:  Gabexate mesilate inhuman acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 1992;104:1165-70

14.Buchler M, Uhl W, Beger HG:  Acute pancreatitis: when and how operate. Dig Dis Sci 1992;10:354.

15.Clavien PA, Robert J, Meyer P et al : Acute pancreatitis and normoamylasemia. Ann Surg 1989;210:614

16.Clavien PA, Burgan S, Moosa Ar.; Serum enzymes and other laboratory test in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1989;76:1234

17. Craig RM, Dordal E, Myles L:  The use of ampicilin in acute pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med 1975;83:831-832

18.Choi TK, Mok F, Zhan WH, Fan ST, Lai ECS, Wong J: Somatostatin in the treatment of acute pancreatitis: a prospective randomised controlled trial
Gut 1989;30:223-27

19.Dervenis CG: Advances in pancreatic disease. Molecular biology, diagnosis and treatment. GT Verlag. Sttutgart New York ,1996.

20.Dohmoto M, Rupp KD: Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic seudocysts. Surg Endoscop 1992;6:118

21.Dominguez-Muñoz JE, Carballo F, Garcia MJ, et al: Clinical usefulness of polymorphonuclear elastase in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis: results of a multicenter study. Br. J Surg 1991;78:1230-34

22.D´Amico D, Favia G, Bisiato R et al: The use of somatostatin in acute pancreatitis: results of a multicenter trial. Hepatogastroenterology 1990;37:92-98.

23.D´Egidio A, Schein M: Surgical strategies in the treatment of pancreatic necrosis and infection. Br J Surg 1991;78:133-7.

24.Fan St, Lai ECS, Mok FPT, Lo CM, Zheng SS, Wong J et al : Early treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis by endocopic papillotomy. N Engl J Med 1993;328:228-32.

25.Fernandez del Castillo, Warshaw Al :Diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of pancreatic cancer , with implication for management. 
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26.Fernandez del Castillo C, Rattner D, Warshaw Al: Acute pancreatitis
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27.Finch WT ,Sawyers JL, Shenker SA: A prospective study to determine the efficacy of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1976;183:667-71

28.Fitz RH.: Acute pancreatitis: a consideration of pancreatic hemorrage, supurative and gangrenous pancreatitis and of disseminated fat necrosis. 
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29.Formela LJ, Galloway SW, Kingsnorth AN: Inflammatory mediators in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1995;82(1)6-13.

30. Folsch UR, Nitsche R, Ludtke R, Hilgers RA, Creuttzfeld W: Early ERCP and papilotomy compared with conservative treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis. New Engl J Med 1997;336:237-42

31.Gerzof SG, Banks PA, Robbins AH, et al: Early diagnosis of pancreatic infection by computed tomography guided aspiration. Gastroenterology 1987;93:1315-20

32.Gjorup I, Roikjaer O, Andersen B et al: A double blind multicenter trial of somatostatin in the treatment of pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1992;175:397-400.

33.Gudgeon AM, Heath DI, Hurley P et al: Trypsinogen activation peptides assay in the early prediction of severity of acute pancreatitis. Lancet 1990; 335:4-8

34.Gumaste V, Dave P., Sereny G: Serum lipase a better test to diagnose acute alcoholic pancreatitis. Am J Med 1992;92:239-242.

35.Ihse I , Lempinen M, Worning H : A clinically based clasification system for acute pancreatitis. Sumary of the Atlanta Classification ( letter). Scand J Gastroenterol 1994;29:95-96 

36.Kelly TR , Wagner DS: Gallstone pancreatitis: a prospective randomized trial of the timming of surgery. Surgery 1988;104:600-5

37.Kivilaakso E, Lempinen M, Mákeláinen A, Nikki P, Schroder T, Pancreatic resection versus peritoneal lavation for acute fulminant pancreatitis: a randomized prospective study. Ann Surg 1984;199:426-31

38.Lai ECS,Mok FPT, Tan ESY , Lo CM, Fan ST, You KT et al: 
Endoscopic biliary drainage for severe acute colangitis. N Engl J Med 1992;326;1582-1586

39.Lam S, Bank S: Risk factors for morbidity and mortality in pancreatitis. Dig Sci 1996;14(2):83-98.

40.Lans JI, Geenen JE, Johanson JL, Hogan WJ: Endoscopic therapy in patients with pancreas divisum and acute pancreatitis: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Gastrointest Endoscop 1992;38:430-4

41.Lee SP, Nichols JF, Park HZ: Biliary sludge as a cause of acute pancreatitis. New Engl J Med 1992;326:589-93

42.Leese T, Shaw D. Comparison of three Glasgow multifactor prognostic systems in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1988;75:460.

43.Lin A, Feller ER.: Pancreatic carcinoma as a cause of unexplained pancreatitis: Report of ten cases . Ann Intern Med 1990; 113:166-67.

44.London NJM, Neoptolemos JP, Lavelle J, Bradley I, James D.: Serial computed tomography scanning in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study. Gut 1989;30:397-403

45.Loiudice TA, Lang J, Mehta H, Banta L: Treatment of acute alcoholic pancreatitis:the role of cimetidine and nasogastric suction. Am J Gastroenterol 1984;79:553-558.

46.Marruecos-Sant L, Net-Castel A, Alegret-Bardi X, Pere-Martínez C, Farre Viladrich A, LLuis-Casajuana F. et al: Insuficiencia respiratoria en la pancreatitis aguda. Med Clin (Barc) 1992;98:694-698

47.Mayer AD, McMahon MJ, Corfield AP et al: Controlled clinical trial of peritoneal lavage for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1985;312:399-404.

48.Mc Mahon MJ, Playforth MJ, Pickford IR.: A comparative study of methods for the prediction of severity of attacks of acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1980;67:22-25

49.Mc Cutcheon AD.: Aetiological factors in pancreatitis. Lancet 1962; 1:710-712

50.MRC Multicenter trial of glucagon and Apronitin.Death from acute pancreatitis. Lancet 1977;2 :632-635.

51.Neoptolemos JP, London NJ, James D, Carr-Locke Dl, Bailey IA, Fossard DP et al: Controlled trial of urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic sphinterotomy versus conservative treatment for acute pancreatitis due to gallstones. Lancet 1988:979-83 

52.Pederzoli P, Vesentini S, Girelli R, Cavallini G, Falconi M, Nifosi F et al. Retroperitoneal and peritoneal drainage and lavage in the treatment of severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstetr 1990;170:197-203.

53.Pederzoli P, Bassi C, Vesentini S, Campedelli A: A randomized multicenter clinical trial of antibiotic prophilaxis of septic complication in acute necrotizing pancreatitis with imipenem. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1993; 176: 480-483

54.Pitchumoni CS, Bordalo O: Evaluation of hypotheses on pathogenesis of alcoholoc pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91(4):637-647

55.Ranson JHC, Rifkins KM, Roses DF, Fink SD, Eng K, Spencer FC.: 
Prognostic sings and the role of operative mangement in acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstetr 1974;139:69-81

56.Ranson JHC, Rifkind KM, Turner JW: Prognostic signs and non operative peritoneal lavage in acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstetr 1976; 143: 209-219

57.Ranson JHC, Berman RS: Long peritoneal lavage decreases pancreatic sepsis in acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1990;211:708-18.

58.Rattner DW, Legermate DA, Lee MJ, Mueller PR, Warshaw AL: Early surgical debridement of symptomatic pancreatic necrosis is beneficial irrespective of infection. Am J Surg 1992;163:105-109.

59.Rattner DW ,Gu ZY, Vlahakes GJ, et al: Hyperamilasemia after cardiac surgery : incidence, significance and management. Ann Surg 1989; 209: 279-283.

60.Runzi M, Layer P: Drug associated pancreatitis: facts and fiction. Pancreas 1996;13(1):100-109.

61.Sarr MG, Sanfey H, Cameron JL: Prospective randomized trial of nasogastric suction in patients with acute pancreatitis. Surgery 1986; 160: 500-504

62.Schmidt J, Fernandez del Castillo C, Rattner DW, Lewandrowski K, Messmer K, Warshaw AL: Hyperoncotic ultrahigh molecular weight dextran solutions reduce trypsinogen activation, prevent acinar necrosis , and lower mortality in rodent pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1993;165:40-45

63.Schroder T, Sainio V, Kivisaari L, Puolakkainen P, Kivilaakso E.: Pancreatic resection versus peritoneal lavage in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 1991;214:663-6

64.Schwartz MS, Brandt LJ. The spectrum of pancreatic disorders in patients with the adquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 1989,84 459-462.

65.Shearer MG, Imrie CW .: Parathyroid hormone levels, hiperparathyroidism and acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1986;73:282-4

66.Sherman S, Leman GA.: ERCP and endoscopic sphynterotomy-induced pancreatitis. Pancreas 1991;7:402

67.Siewert B, Raptopoulos V.: CT of the Acute abdomen:findings and impact on diagnosis and treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994 ;163(6):1317-24.

68.Singh M .Pathophysiology of alcohol related pancreatitis. Semin Gastrointestinal Dis 1991;2:140

69.Singh M,Simsek H: Ethanol and the pancreas: current status. 
Gastroenterology 1990;98:1051-62 

70.Steer ML: Recent insights into the etiology ans pathogenesis of acute biliar pancreatitis . AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995 Apr;164(4):811-4. 

71.Steinberg WM, Tenner S: Acute pancreatitis. New Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1198-1208

72.Steinberg WM: Predictors of severity of acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1990; 19:849.

73.Tonetti F, Calvi A.: 5-Fluouracil in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, our experience. Minerva Dietol Gastroenterol 1989;35:201-4 .

74.Toskes PP: Hiperlipemic pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1990; 19:783-91

75.Ward JB, Petersen OH, Jenkins SA, Sutton R: Is an elevated concentration of acinar cytosolic free ionised calcium the trigger for acute pancreatitis. Lancet 1995;346(8981):1016-1019.

76.Wassef W, Zfass AM: Gallstone pancreatitis: an update. Gastroenterologist 1996;4(1):70-75.

77.Wilson C, Heath DI, Imrie CW: Prediction of outcome in acute pancreatitis: a comparative study of APACHE II, clinical assesment and multiple factor scoring systems. Br J Surg 1990;77:1260-64

78.Wilson C, Imrie CW. Changing patterns of incidence and mortality from acute pancreatitis in Scottland 1961-1985. Br J Surg 1990;77:731-4

79.Wilson C, Heads A, Shenkin, Imrie CW: C reactive protein, antiproteases and complement factors as objective markers of severity in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1989;76:177-81