Capítulo 1. 15. Manejo del paciente en el postoperatorio de cirugía cardiaca


1. Hendren WG, Higgins TL. Immediate Postoperative Care of the Cardiac Surgery Patient. Sem Thorac Cardiovasc Med. 1991; 3: 3-12. 

2. Postoperative Care en Kirklin JW, Barrat-Boyes BG. Cardiac Surgery. New York. Churchill Livingstone 1993; pp 195-274.

3. Cuidados postoperatorios de la cirugía cardiaca en el paciente adulto. en Shoemaker

4. Lell W. Myocardial Protection during Cardiopulmonary Bypass en Kaplan J.A. Cardiac Anesthesia. Saunders. Filadelfia 1993. pp 1030-1045

5. Toda K, Tatsumi E, Taenaka Y et al. Impact of sistemic depulsation on tissue perfusion and sympathetic nerve activity. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Dic; 62(6): 1737-43.

6. Boyle EH, Pohlman TH, Cornejo CJ et al. Endothelial cell injury in cardiovascular surgery: ischemia-reperfusion. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Dic; 62(6): 1868-76.

7. Aznarez B, Renes E. Monitorización en el postoperatorio de la cirugía cardiaca, en N. Perales y E. Renes eds. Control Postoperatorio de la Cirugía Cardiaca (Medicina Crítica Practica) Edikamed. Barcelona 1995. pp 25-42.

8. Fojon Polanco S et al. Complicaciones cardiovasculares en el postoperatorio de cirugía cardiaca, en N.Perales y E.Renes eds. Control Postoperatorio de la Cirugía Cardiaca (Medicina Crítica Practica) Edikamed. Barcelona 1995.pp 75-98.

9. Russo AM, O’Connor WH,Waxman HL. Atypical presentations and echocardiographic findings in patients with cardiac tamponade occurring early and late after cardiac surgery. Chest 1993; 104: 71.

10.Verma SP, Silke B, Nelson GIC, et al: Haemodynamic advantages of a combined inotropic-venodilatador regimen over inotropic monotherapy in acute heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7: 943-947.

11. Newton GE, Parker JD. Cardiac sympathetic responses to acute vasodilatation: Normal ventriculat function versus congestive heart failure. Circulation 1996 Dic; 94(12): 3161-68.

12.Maskin CS, Le Jemtel TH, Sonnenblick E. Inotropic drugs for treatment of the failing heart en C Richard Conti eds. Cardiac Drug Therapy. FA Davis Company. Filadelfia 1984.pp 1-17.

13. DiSesa VJ. Pharmacologycal Support for Postoperative Low Cardiac Output. Sem Thoracic Cardiovasc Med 1991; 3:13-23.

14. Cheung PY, Barrington KJ, Pearson RJ et al. Systemic, pulmonary and mesenteric perfusion and oxigenation effects of dopamina and epinefrina. Resp Crit Care Med 1997 Jan; 115(1): 32-38.

15. Sun KT, Czernin J, KriviKapich J et al, Effect of dobutamina stimulation on myocardial blood flow, glucose metabolismo and wall motion in normal an disfunctional myocardium. Circulation 1996 Dic; 94(12): 3146-55

16. Goldstein RA. Clinical effects of intravenous amrinona in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation 1986:73: 191-194

17.Wright EM, Skoyles J, Sherry KM. Milrinone in the treatment of low output states following cardiac surgery. Eur. J of Anaesthesiol.1992; Supl.5: 21-26.

18. Stamatelopoulos SF, Nanas JN, Saridakis NS et al. Treating severe cardiogenic shock by large counterpoulsation volumes. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Oct; 62(4): 1110-18

19. Kantrowitz A, MD, Cardona R, MD, Freed P, MD. Percutaneous intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. Critical Care Clinics. 1992; Volumen 8: 819-837. 

20. Naunheim K, Swartz M, Pennington G. Intraaortic balloon pumping in patients requiring cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;104:1654-1661.

21. Pinkard J, Utley R, Leyland S. Relative risk of aortic and femoral insertion of intraaortic balloon pump after coronary artery bypass grafting procedures. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993; 105:721-728.

22. Pennington DG, Swartz MT. Ventricular assistance as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. En Cardiac Transplantation; Eds. Hosenpud JD, Cobanoglu A, Norman DJ and Starr A. 1991. pp 530-570

23. Farrar D, Lawson J, Litwark p. Thoratec VAD system as a bridge to heart transplantation. J Heart Transplan 1990;9:415-423.

24. Mc Bride, LR. Bridging to cardiac transplantation with external ventricular assist device. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994; 6 (3): 169-173

25. Barron HV, Martin J, Saxon L. ICD Use as a bridge to cardiac transpalntation. Circulation . 1996 Nov; 94 (9): 2308-10.

26. Ashton RC, Goldstein DJ, Rose EA, et al. Duration of left ventricular assist device support affects trasplant survival. J Heart Lung Tansplant. 1996 Nov; 15(11): 1151-58.

27. Massad MG, McCarthy PM, Smedira NG et al. Does successful bridging with the implantable left ventricular assist device afect cardiac trasplantation outcome?. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996 Nov; 112(5): 1275-84.

28. Pennington DG, McBride LR, Kanter KR, et al. The effect of perioperative myocardial infarction on survival of poatcardiotomy patients supported with ventricular assist devices. Circulatio 1988;78(Suppl III):110-115.

29.Golding. LA; Crouch, RD; Stewart, R.W et col. Postcardiotomy centrifugal mechanical ventricular support. Ann Thorac Surg 1992;54:1059-64

30. Wareing, RK; Kouchoukos, NT. Postcardiotomy mechanical circulatory support in the elderly. Ann Thorac Surg 1991;51:443-7

31. Curtis, J. Centrifugal Mechanical Assist for postcardiotomy ventricular failure. Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 1994; 6 (3): 140-6.

32. Miller CA, Pae WE, Pierce WS. Combined registry for the clínical use of machanical ventricular assist devices. Poscardiotomy cardiogenic shock. Trans Am Soc Artf Intern Organs 1990; 36: 43-46.

33.Pae WE. Ventricular assist device and total artificial hearts: A combined registry experience. Ann Thorac Surgery. 1993; 55: 295-8 

34. Pennington G, Swartz M. Current status of temporary circulatory support. Adv Card Surg. 1990; 198: 177-198.

35. Nakatani S, Thomas JD, Savage RM, et al. Prediction of right ventricular disfunction after left ventricular assist device implantation. Circulation supple. 1996 Nov; 94 (9):216-222.

36. Spanier T, Oz M, Levin H et al. Activation of coagulation and fibrinolityc pathways in patients with left ventricular assist devices. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996 Oct; 112(4): 1090-98.

37. Livingston ER, Fisher CA, Bibidakis EJ, et al. Increased activation of the coagulation an fybrinolitic systems lead to hemorrhagic complications during left ventricular assist implantation. Circulation supple. 1996 Nov; 94 (9): 227-35.

38..Hess W et al. Comparison of phentolamine and urapidil in controlling acute intraoperative hypertension in patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery. Europ. J of Anaesth. 2; 1985: 21-27.

39. D’Ambra MN, LaRaia PJ, Philbin DM, et al. Prostagladin E1: A new therapy for refractary rigth ventricular failure and pulmonary hypertension after mitral valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1985; 89: 567-572.

40. Murali S, Uretsky BF, Reddy PS et al. Reversibility of pulmonary hypertension in congestive heart failure patients evaluated for cardiac transplantation: comparative effects of various pharmacologic agents. Am Heart J. 1991; 122(5):1375-1381.

41. Murali S, Uretsky BF, Armitage JM. Utility of Prostaglandin E1 in the pretransplan-tation evaluation of heart failure patients with significant pulmonary hypertension. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1992;11(4):716-723.

42. Vincent JL, Carlier E, Pinsky MR. Prostaglandin E1 infusion for righ ventricular failure after cardiac transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992; 103 (1):33-39

43. Fullerton DA, Jaggers J, Piedalue F et al. Effective control of refractary pulmonary hypertension after cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;113(2):363-371.

44. Girard C et al. Inhaled Nitric Oxide after mitral valve replacement in patients with chronic pulmonary arter y hypertension. Anestesiology 1992;77:880-883.

45. Scheeren T and Radermacher P. Prostacyclina (PGI2): new aspects of an old susbtance in the treatment of critically ill patients. Int Care Med. 1997;23:146-158

46. Atz AM, Adatia I, Wessel DL. Rebound pulmonary hypertension after inhalation of nitric oxide Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Dic; 62(6): 1759-65.

47. Young JD, Dyar OJ. Delivery and monitoring of inhaled nitric oxide. Int Care Med. 1996 Jan; 22(1):77-87.

48 Lente FV, Martin A, Ratliff NB, et al. The predictive value of serum enzymes for perioperative myocardial infarction after cardiac operations : an autopsy study. J Thorac. Cardiovascular Surgery 1989; 98:704-711.

49. Quaini E, Colombo T, Russo C, et al. Hospital morbidity and mortality after miocardial revascularisation surgery: Current changes in risk factors. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 1995: 275-282.

50. Obarski TP, Loop FD, Cosgrove DM, et al. Frecuency of acute myocardial infarction in valve repairs versus valve replacement for pure mitral regurgitation. Am J of Cardiol. 1990; 65: 887-890.

51. Aksnes J, Abdelnoor M, Berge V, et al. Risk factors of septicemia and perioperative myocardial infarction in a cohort of patients supported with intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) in the course of open heart surgery. Europ J Cardiothorac Surg.1993;7:153-157.

52. Hodakowsky GT, Craver JM, Jones LM, et al. Clínical significance of perioperative Q-wave myocardial infarction: the Emory angioplastia versus surgery trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996 Dic; 112(6): 1447-55. 

53.. Landesberg G, Luria MH, Cotev S, et al. Importance of long duration postoperative ST segment depression in cardiac morbidity after vascular surgery Lancet 1993; 341(8847); 715-9.

54. Graeber GM, Shawl FA, et al. Changes in serum creatin kinasa and lactate dehidrogenase caused by acute perioperative myocardial infarction and by transatrial cardiac surgical procedures. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 1986; 92:63-72.

55. Hake U, Schmid FX, Iversen S, et al. Troponin T: a reliable marker of perioperative myocardial infarction ?. Eur. Journal of Cardiothorac. Surg. 1993; 7: 628-633.

56. Etievent JP, Chocron S, Toubin G, et al. Use of cardiac troponin I as a marker of perioperative myocardial ischemia. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1995; 59:1192-1194.

57. A. Carrera, M. V. Martínez, M. García Guiral, et al. Utilización de altas dosis de aprotinina en cirugía cardiaca. Rev. Esp. Anestesiol. Reanim. 1994; 41:13-19.

58. Kaul TK, Fields BL, Riggins SL, et. Coronary artery by-pass grafting withing 30 days of an acute myocardial infarction. Ann. Thorac. Surg. May 1995 59: 1169-1176.

59. Lipski A, Sahar G, De Bruyne Y, et al. Acute myocardial infarction inmediately after heart transplantation. J. Heart Lung transplant 1993; 12: 1065-1066. 

60. Alfieri A, Spielman S. Ventricular arrhytmias following open heart surgery diagnosis and management. Cardiac and Noncardiac Complications of Open Heart Surgery: Prevention, Diagnosis and treatment. Ed. Morris N. Kotler, MD. Anthony Alfieri, Do. 1992. PP 95-105.

61. Waldo A, Mc Lean W. Diagnosis and treatmen of cardiac arrithmias following open heart surgery. 1980. Mount Kisco, New York.

62. Hearse DJ, Stewart DA, Braimbridge MV. Myocardial protection during ischemic cardiac arrest. The importance of magnesium in cardioplegic infusates. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 1978; 75(6): 877-885

63. Fanning WJ, Thomas CS, Roach A et al. Prophylaxis of atrial fibrillation with magnesium sulfate after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 1991;52: 529-3

64. Colquhoun IW, Berg GA, El-Fiky M et al. Arrhythmia prophylaxis after coronary artery surgery. A randomised controlled trial of intravenous magnesium chloride. Eur J Cardio Thorac Surg. 1993; 7:520-523.

65. Chow MS. Intravenous amiodarone: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clínical use Ann Pharmacother 1996 Jun; 30(6):637-43.

66. Galve E, Rius T, Ballester R et al. Intravenous amiodarone on recent onset of atrial fibrillation; result on a randomized, controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Apr; 27(5): 1079-82.

67. Wood MK. Amiodarone for ventricular tachycardia after coronary artery bypass grafting (letter). Ann Thorac Surgery. 1996 Jun; 61(6): 1984

68. Levine JH, Massumi A, Scheinman MM, et al. Intravenous Amiodarone for recurrent sustained hypotnsive ventricular tachyarrhythmyas. Intravenous Amiodarone Multicentere Trial Group. J Am Col Cardiol. 1996 Jan; 27(1): 67-75.

69. Woodman R, Harker LA. Bleeding complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood;76:1680.1990.

70. Leal Noval SR y col. Trasfusion de hemoderivados en cirugía cardiaca Med Intensiva. 1995, 19: 20-27.

71. Boldt J, Kling D, Weidler D et al. Acute preoperative hemodilution in cardiac surgery: volumen replacement with hypertonic saline hydroxiethyl starch solution. J Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 1991; 5:23-28.

72. Parrot D, Lancon JP, Merle JP et al. Blood salvage in cardiac surgery. J Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 1991; 5:454-456

73. Salm TJV, Kaur S, Lancey RA, et al. Reduction of bleeding after heart operations through the prophylactic use of epsilon-aminocaproic acid. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996 Oct; 112(4): 1098-1108.

74. D’Ambra MN, Akins CW, Blackstone EH et al. Aprotinine in primary valve replacement and reconstruction: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996 Oct; 112(4): 1081-1090.

75. Okita Y, Takamoto Sh, Ando M et al. Is use of aprotinina safe with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic surgery? Investigationts in blood coagulation. Circulation supple. 1996 Nov; 94 (9): 177-82.

76. Allen S, Anastasiou N, Royston D et al. Effect of aprotinina on vascular reactivity of coronary bypass grafts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997 Feb;113(2):319-327.

77. Chesebro JH, Fuster V. Optimal antithombotic therapy for mechanical prosthetic heart valves. Circulation . 1996 Nov; 94 (9):2055-57.

78. Acar J, Lung B, Boissel JP et al. AREVA: Multicenter Randomized comparison of low-dose versus standard dose coagulation in patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves. Circulation . 1996 Nov; 94 (9): 2107-13.

79. Radegran K, Aren C, Teger-Nilsson AC. Prostacyclin infusion during extracorporeal circulation for coronary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1982;83:205-211

80. Zusman RM, Rubin RH, Cato AE et al. Hemodialysis using prostacyclin instead of heparin as the sole antithrombotic agent. N Eng J Med. 1981;304:934-939.

81. Langenecker SA, FelferingM, Werba A et al. Anticoagulación with prostacyclin and heparin during continuous venoveno hemofiltration. Crit Care Med. 1994;22:1774-1781.

82. Habib RH, Zacharias A, Engoren M. Determinants of prolonged mechanical ventilation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996; 62(4): 1110-18

83. Mills SA. Cerebral injury and cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993; 56: S86-91. 

84. Mills SA, Prough DS. Neuropsychiatric complications following cardiac surgery. Sem Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991; 3(1):39-46.

85. Gilman SD. Neurological complications of open heart surgery. Ann Neurol. 1990; 28(4): 475-6.

86. Fessatidis Y, Prapas S, Hevas A, Didilis V, Alotzeilat A, Missias G, Asteri T, Spyrou P. Prevention of perioperative neurological dysfunction. A six years perspective of cardiac surgery. J. Cardiovasc Surg 1991; 32: 570-4.

87. Zeilthofer J,Asenbaum S,Spiss C, Wimmer A, Mayr N, Wolner E, Deecke L. Central nervous system after cardiopulmonary bypass. Eur Heart J . 1993;14:885-90.

88. Regragui Y, Birdi Y, Izzat MB, et al. The effects of cardiopulmonary bypass temperature on neuropsichologic outcome after coronary artery operations: a prospective randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;112(4):1036-46.

89. Roach GW, et al. Adverse cerebral outcomes after coronary bypass surgery. N Eng J Med 1996 ; 335 (25): 1857-64.

90. Weintraub WS, Jones EL, Craver J. Determinants of prolonged length of hospital stay after coronary bypass surgery. Circulation. 1989; 80: 276-84.

91. Fessatidis IT, Thomas VL, Shore DF, Hunt RH, Weller RO, Goodland F, Rowe D, Venetikou MV, Bloom SR. Assesment of neurological injury due to circulatory arrest during profound hypotermia. Eur J. Cardio-thorac Surg 1993; 7: 465-73.

92. Treasure T, Smith PL, Newman S, Schneidau A; Joseph P, Ell P, Harrison MJ. Impairment of cerebral function following cardiac and other major surgery. Eur J. Cardiothorac Surg. 1989: 3; 216-21.

93. Serbanesco F, Mermet B, Vicat J, Serbanesco-Ventilla F. Epilepsy and cardiac surgery.J Cardiovasc Surg. 1991; 32: 814-19.

94. Blackburn ME. Gibbs JL, Dickinson DF. Chorea after cardiopulmonary bypass. Exacerbation by captopril. Int J Cardiol. 1991; 30: 236-237. 

95. Wareing TH, Davila-Roman VG, Daily BB, Murphy SF, Schechtman KB, Barzilai B, Kouchoukos NT. Strategy for the reduction of stroke incidence in cardiac surgical patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993; 55: 1400-8.

96. Henze T, Stephan H, Sonntag H. Cerebral dysfunction folloging extracorporeal circulation for aortocoronary bypass surgery: no differences in neuropsychological outcome after pulsatile versus non pulsatile flow. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;38:65-8

97. Tingleff J, Joyce FS, Pettersson G. Intraoperative study of air embolism during cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg 1995; 60: 673-7.

98. Sellman M. Ivert T, Ronquist G, Caesarini K, Persson L, Semb BK. Central nervous sistem damage during cardiac surgery assessed by 3 different biochemical markers in cerebrospinal fluid. Scan J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992; 26: 39-45.

99. Vaagenes P, Kjekshus J, Sivertsen E, Semb G. Temporal patern of enzyme changes in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurologic complications after open heart surgery. Crit Care Med. 1987; 15:726-31. 

100. Lin PJ, Chang, Tan et al. Prolonged circularoty arrest in moderate hypothermia with retrograde cerebral perfusion: is brain ischemic?. Circulation suppl. 1996; 94: 169-73.

101. Newman MF, Croughwell ND, White WD, et al. Effect of perfusion pressure on cerebral blood flow during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation supple. 1996 ; 94 (9): 347-53.

102. Fish KJ, Helms KN, Sarnquist FH, van Steennis C, Linet OI, Hilberman M et al. A prospective, randomized study of the effects of prostacyclin on neuropsychologic dysfunction after coronary artery operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.1987; 93: 609-15.

103. Legault C, Furberg CD, Wagenknecht LE et al. Nomidipine in cardiac valve remplacement. Report of an early terminated trial. Stroke 1996; 27: 593-98.

104. Newman MF, Wolman R, Kanchuger M et al. Multicenter preoperative stroke risk index for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation supple. 1996; 94 (9):74-81.

105. Mickleborough LL, Walker PM, Takagi Y, et al. Risk factor for stroke in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.1996;112:1250-60.

106. Uusaro A, Ruokonen E, Takala J. Splachnic oxigen transport after cardiac surgery : evidence of inadecuade tissue perfussion after stabilization of hemodinamics. Int Care Med. 1996 ; 22(1): 26-34.

107. Gutierrez G  Splachnic hypoxia after cardiac surgery.Int Care Med. 1996; 22(1): 1-3

108. Gault DT, HuddlestonC, Jones BM. Infected sternotomy wounds. Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg; 4: 48-50,1990.

109- Rebollo MH, Bernal JM, Llorca J, et al. Nosocomial infections in patients having cardiovascular operations: a multivariable analisys of risk factors. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996 Oct; 112(4): 908-14.

110- Bullard KM, Dunn D. Diagnosis and treatment of bacteremia and intravascular catheter infections. Am J Surg. 1996 ; 172 (6A): 13S.

111. Brown IW, Moore GF, Hummel BV et al. Toward further reducing wound infections in cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996; 62(6): 1783-90.

112. Lopez Rodriguez A, Julia Narvaez JA, Jerez Gomez Coronado V. Complicaciones frecuentes en el postoperatorio de cirugía extracorporea. En Perales N, Renes E: Medicina Critica Practica. Control Postoperatorio de la Cirugía Cardiaca. Edicamet Barcelona: 1995. 100-107.

113- Liekweg WG, and Misra R. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, percutaneous trasluminal coronary angioplasty and stend placement for left main stenosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997 ;113(2):411-413.